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Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google Inc., and backed by an industry consortium known as the Open Handset Alliance. It is an open source platform with optional proprietary components, including a suite of flagship software for Google services, and the application and content storefront Google Play. [56] Android was officially introduced via the release of its inaugural device, the HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1) on October 20, 2008. [57] As an open source product, Android has also been the subject of third-party development. Development groups have used the Android source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system, such as CyanogenMod, to add features to the OS and provide newer versions of Android to devices that no longer receive official updates from their vendor. [ 58] [59] [60] Forked versions of Android have also adopted by other vendors, such as, who used its “Fire OS” on a range of tablets and the Fire Phone. [61] [62] As it is a non-proprietary platform that has shipped on devices covering a wide range of market segments, Android has seen significant adoption. Gartner Research estimated that 325 million Android smartphones were sold during the fourth quarter of 2015, leading all other platforms. Samsung Electronics, who produces Android devices, was also the top smartphone vendor across all platforms in the same period of time.

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a proprietary mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. primarily for its iPhone product line. The first iPhone was unveiled in January 2007. The device introduced numerous design concepts that have been adopted by modern smartphone platforms, such as the use of multi-touch gestures for navigation, eschewing physical controls such as physical keyboards in favor of those rendered by the operating system itself on its touchscreen (including the keyboard), and the use of skeumorphism-making features and controls within the user interface resemble real-world objects and concepts in order to improve their usability. [64] [65] In 2008, Apple introduced the App Store, a centralized storefront for purchasing new software for iPhone devices. [66] [67] iOS can also integrate with Apple’s desktop music program iTunes to sync media to a personal computer. [68] [69] The dependency on a PC was removed with the introduction of iCloud on later versions of iOS, which provides synchronization of user data via the Internet servers between multiple devices. [70] The iPhone line’s early dominance was credited with reshaping the smartphone industry, and helping make Apple one of the world’s most valuable publicly traded companies by 2011. However, the iPhone and iOS have generally been in second place in worldwide market share. [63] [ 71] [72]
Windows Phone
Main article: Windows Phone

Windows Phone is a series of proprietary smartphone operating systems developed by Microsoft. Its original release, Windows Phone 7, was a revamped version of the previous, Windows CE-based mobile platforms; however, it was incompatible with the legacy platforms. [73] Windows Phone’s user interface was designed to contrast with its competitors, utilizing a design language codenamed “Metro” which de-emphasized iconography and skeuomorphism in favor of flat, text-based designs. The platform also featured concepts such as “live tiles” on its home screen that can display dynamic content, and “Hubs” -which aggregate content from various sources and services (such as a user’s local contacts, in combination with connected social networking services) into unified displays. Windows Phone also integrated with other Microsoft brands and platforms, including Bing, SkyDrive, and Xbox. Microsoft Office Mobile apps were also bundled with the operating system. [74] [75] [76]

Windows Phone 8 was released in 2012; it was incompatible with existing devices, but switched to a core system based on the Windows NT platform, expanded the platform’s hardware support and functionality, and added expanded enterprise-oriented functionality such as storage encryption. [77] [78] [79] Windows 10 Mobile was released in late 2015; it is no longer promoted under the Windows Phone brand, as it is intended to provide greater consistency and integration with Windows 10 for the PC, including cross-platform applications via Universal Windows Platform, and the ability to dock supported devices to use a desktop interface with keyboard and mouse support. [80] [81] [82]

The Windows Phone series has had poor adoption in comparison to its competitors. Lack of interest in the platform also led to a decrease in third-party applications, and some vendors ended their support for Windows Phone altogether. [63] [83] [84] The most prominent Windows Phone vendor was Nokia, who exclusively adopted Windows Phone as its smartphone platform in 2011 as part of a wider partnership with Microsoft. [85] Nokia’s Lumia series was the most popular line of Windows Phone devices, representing 83.3% of all Windows Phones sold in June 2013 [86] and Microsoft acquired Nokia’s mobile business for just over € 5.44 billion in April 2014, forming the subsidiary Microsoft Mobile under former Nokia CEO Stephen Elop.

In 1999 RIM released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. In September 2012, RIM announced that the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped. As of September 2014, there were around 46 million active BlackBerry service subscribers. [90] Most recently, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its name to BlackBerry and making new devices on the new platform named “BlackBerry 10” [91] and in November 2015 released an Android smartphone, the BlackBerry Priv. [92]
Sailfish OS
Main article: Sailfish OS

The Sailfish OS is based on the Linux kernel and Lon. [93] Additionally Sailfish OS includes a partially or completely proprietary multi-tasking user interface programmed by Jolla. This user interface differentiate Jolla smartphones from others. [94] Sailfish OS is intended to be a system made by many of the MeeGo team, which left Nokia to form Jolla, utilizing funding from Nokia’s “Bridge” program which helps establish and support start-up companies formed by former Nokia employees. [95] [96] [97]
Main article: Tizen

Tizen is a Linux-based operating system for devices, including smartphones, tablets, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices, smart TVs, laptops and smart cameras. Tizen is a project within the Linux Foundation and is governed by a Technical Steering Group (TSG), composed of Samsung and Intel among others. In April 2014, Samsung released the Samsung Gear 2 and the Gear 2 Neo, running Tizen. [98] The Samsung Z1 is the first smartphone produced by Samsung that runs Tizen; It was released in the Indian market on January 14, 2015 ..

Symbian was originally developed by Psion as EPOC32. It was the world’s most widely used smartphone operating system until Q4 2010, though the platform never gained popularity in the U.S., as it did in Europe and Asia. The first Symbian phone, the touchscreen Ericsson R380 Smartphone, was released in 2000, [101] [102] and was the first device marketed as a “smartphone”. [103] It combined a PDA with a mobile phone. [104] Variants of Symbian OS began to emerge, most notably Symbian UIQ, MOAP and S60, each supported by different manufacturers. With the creation of the Symbian Foundation in 2008, Symbian OS was unified under one variant under the stewardship of Nokia. In February 2011, Nokia announced that it would replace Symbian with Windows Phone as the operating system on all of its future smartphones, with the platform being abandoned over the following few years. [105]
Windows Mobile
Main article: Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile was based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system. Throughout its lifespan, the operating system was available in both touchscreen and non-touchscreen formats. It was supplied with a suite of applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API and was designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third parties could develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were eventually purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service’s brief lifespan. Windows Mobile was eventually phased out in favor of Windows Phone OS.

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn, with the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, being ice giants. Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times.[12] The Romans named it after their god Jupiter.[13] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows,[14] and making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements,[15] but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. In late February 2007, Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter’s gravity to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto. The latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016.[16][17] Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.
Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun. As Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the Grand Tack Hypothesis, gravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap.[18]

Astronomers have discovered nearly 500 planetary systems with multiple planets. Regularly these systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth’s (super-Earths), orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, and sometimes also Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star.

Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth
Jupiter’s upper atmosphere is composed of about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume of gas molecules. A helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus, Jupiter’s atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements. The interior contains denser materials, such that the distribution is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 5% other elements by mass. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia.[20][21] Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found.[22]

The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun.[23] Helium is also depleted to about 80% of the Sun’s helium composition. This depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet.[24]

Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have relatively less hydrogen and helium.

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