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In 1999, the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within the country. These phones ran on i-mode, which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kbit / s. [23] Unlike future generations of wireless services, NTT DoCoMo’s i-mode used cHTML, a language which restricted some aspects of traditional HTML in favor of increasing data speed for the devices. Limited functionality, small screens and limited bandwidth allowed for phones that use the slower data speeds available. [24] The rise of i-mode helped NTT DoCoMo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of 2001. It was also ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally. This power would wane in the face of the rise of 3G and new phones with advanced wireless network capabilities. [25] Outside Japan smartphones were still rare until the introduction of the Danger Hiptop and 2002, which saw moderate success in the US as the T-Mobile Sidekick. Later, in the mid-2000s, devices based on Microsoft’s Windows Mobile started to gain popularity among business users in the US The BlackBerry later gained mass adoption in the US, and American users popularized the term “CrackBerry” in 2006 due to its addictive nature . [26] The company first released its GSM BlackBerry 6210, BlackBerry 6220, BlackBerry 6230 devices and in 2003. [27]
Operating systems

Symbian was the most popular smartphone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s. Initially, Nokia’s Symbian devices were focused on business, similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time. From 2006 onwards, Nokia started producing entertainment-focused smartphones, popularized by the Nseries. In Asia, with the exception of Japan, the trend was similar to that of Europe. [Citation needed] In 2003, Motorola launched the first smartphone to use Linux, the A760 handset. [28] While the initial release was limited to a single high-end handsets only available in the Asia-Pacific region, the maker’s intention was to eventually use Linux on most of its handsets, including the lower-end models. Further models that use Linux, such as the Motorola Ming A1200 and 2005 and several successors to the Ming line would be unveiled through 2010. In late 2009, Motorola released the Motorola Cliq, [29] the first of Nokia’s smartphones to run the Linux-based Android operating system.

In early 2007, Apple Inc. introduced the iPhone, one of the first smartphones to use a multi-touch interface. The iPhone was notable for its use of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction, instead of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical for smartphones at the time. [30] In October 2008, the first phone to use Android called the HTC Dream (also known as the T-Mobile G1) was released. [31] [32] Android is an open-source platform founded by Andy Rubin and now owned by Google. [33] [34] Although Android’s adoption was relatively slow at first, it started to gain widespread popularity in 2010, and in early 2012 dominated the smartphone market share worldwide, which continues to this day. [35]

These new platforms led to the decline of earlier ones. Microsoft, for instance, started a new OS from scratch, called Windows Phone. Nokia abandoned Symbian and partnered with Microsoft to use Windows Phone on its smartphones. Windows Phone then became the third-most-popular OS. Palm’s webOS was bought by Hewlett-Packard and later sold to LG Electronics for use on LG Smart TVs. BlackBerry Limited, formerly known as Research In Motion, also made a new platform based on QNX, BlackBerry 10th The capacitive touchscreen also changed the smartphone form factors. Before 2007, it was common for devices to have a physical numeric keypad or physical QWERTY keyboard and either a candy bar or sliding form factor. However, by 2010, there were no top-selling smartphones with physical keypads.
2010s technological developments

In 2013, the company Fairphone launched its first “socially ethical” smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials and the manufacturing. [36] In late 2013, QSAlpha commenced production of a smartphone designed entirely around security, encryption and identity protection. [37] In December 2013, the world’s first curved OLED technology smartphones were introduced to the retail market with the sale of the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex models. [38] Samsung phones with more bends and folds, and the screens were expected in 2014. [39] In 2013, water and dustproofing have made their way into the mainstream high-end smartphones including Sony Xperia Z, Sony Xperia Z3 and the Samsung Galaxy S5. [40] Previously, this feature was confined to special ruggedized phones designed for outdoor use.

In early 2014, smartphones were beginning to use the Quad HD (2K) 2560×1440 on 5.5 “screens with up to 534 PPI on devices such as the LG G3 which is a significant improvement over Apple’s Retina Display. Quad HD is used in advanced televisions and computer monitors, but with 110 ppi or less on such larger displays. [41] In 2014, the Wi-Fi networks were used a lot for smartphones. As Wi-Fi became more prevalent and easier to connect to, it was predicted that Wi-Fi phone services will start to take off. [42] [43] [44] In 2014, LG introduced lasers on the LG G3 to help camera focus. [45] In 2014, some smartphones had such good digital cameras that they could be categorized as a high-end point-and-shoot cameras with large sensors up to 1 “with 20 megapixels and 4K video. Some can store their pictures and proprietary raw image format, but the Android (operating system) 5.0 Lollipop include open source RAW images. [46] [47] By 2015, smartphones were increasingly integrated with everyday uses. For instance, credit cards, mobile payments, and mobile banking were integrated into smartphone applications and Software as a Service (SaaS) platforms. [48] Additionally, recent technological innovations are causing the role of traditional keys to be fused into the smartphones, because a smartphone can act as a digital key and access badge for its users. [49] In October 2015, Microsoft announced Windows Continuum, a feature that allows users to connect their devices to an external monitor via Microsoft Continuum Display Dock. [50] HP adds a layer to the Continuum with their HP Workplace which enables a user to run a Win32 app by a virtualized server. [51] The first modular smartphone available to the public was the Fairphone 2, which was released in December 2015. Unlike most smartphones, users can remove and replace parts on this phone.
Future possible developments
In 2013, it was reported that a foldable OLED smartphones could be as much as a decade away because of the anticipated cost of producing them is dropping. However, as of 2013, there is a relatively high failure rate when producing these screens. As little as a speck of dust can ruin a screen during production. [Citation needed] As well, creating a battery that can be folded is another hurdle. [52] In 2014, it was reported that future smartphones might not have a traditional battery as their sole source of power. Instead, they may pull energy from radio, television, cellular or Wi-Fi signals

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often referred to as the “Red Planet”[13][14] because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance.[15] Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature.[16][17] Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids,[18][19] similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.

There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. In situ investigations have been performed by the Viking landers, Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Phoenix lander, and Curiosity rover. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers.[20][21][22][23] Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is about 100 times thinner than Earth’s,[24] except at the lowest elevations for short periods.[25][26] The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water.[27][28] The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft).[29]

Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91,[7] which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers (190 mi) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth’s atmosphere
Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a dense metallic core overlaid by less dense materials.[33] Current models of its interior imply a core region about 1,794 ± 65 kilometers (1,115 ± 40 mi) in radius, consisting primarily of iron and nickel with about 16–17% sulfur.[34] This iron(II) sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements than Earth’s core.[35] The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but it appears to be dormant. Besides silicon and oxygen, the most abundant elements in the Martian crust are iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, and potassium. The average thickness of the planet’s crust is about 50 km (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 km (78 mi).[35] Earth’s crust, averaging 40 km (25 mi), is only one third as thick as Mars’, in ratio to the sizes of the two planets.
Surface geology
Main article: Geology of Mars

Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and other elements that typically make up rock. The surface of Mars is primarily composed of tholeiitic basalt,[36] although parts are more silica-rich than typical basalt and may be similar to andesitic rocks on Earth or silica glass. Regions of low albedo show concentrations of plagioclase feldspar, with northern low albedo regions displaying higher than normal concentrations of sheet silicates and high-silicon glass. Parts of the southern highlands include detectable amounts of high-calcium pyroxenes. Localized concentrations of hematite and olivine have been found.[37] Much of the surface is deeply covered by finely grained iron(III) oxide dust
Although Mars has no evidence of a structured global magnetic field,[41] observations show that parts of the planet’s crust have been magnetized, and that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past. This paleomagnetism of magnetically susceptible minerals has properties that are similar to the alternating bands found on the ocean floors of Earth. One theory, published in 1999 and re-examined in October 2005 (with the help of the Mars Global Surveyor), is that these bands demonstrate plate tectonics on Mars four billion years ago, before the planetary dynamo ceased to function and the planet’s magnetic field faded away.[42]

During the Solar System’s formation, Mars was created as the result of a stochastic process of run-away accretion out of the protoplanetary disk that orbited the Sun. Mars has many distinctive chemical features caused by its position in the Solar System. Elements with comparatively low boiling points, such as chlorine, phosphorus, and sulphur, are much more common on Mars than Earth; these elements were probably removed from areas closer to the Sun by the young star’s energetic solar wind.[43]

After the formation of the planets, all were subjected to the so-called “Late Heavy Bombardment”. About 60% of the surface of Mars shows a record of impacts from that era,[44][45][46] whereas much of the remaining surface is probably underlain by immense impact basins caused by those events. There is evidence of an enormous impact basin in the northern hemisphere of Mars, spanning 10,600 by 8,500 km (6,600 by 5,300 mi), or roughly four times larger than the Moon’s South Pole – Aitken basin, the largest impact basin yet discovered.[16][17] This theory suggests that Mars was struck by a Pluto-sized body about four billion years ago. The event, thought to be the cause of the Martian hemispheric dichotomy, created the smooth Borealis basin that covers 40% of the planet

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