# Rregullo Rate

In mathematics, a rate is the ratio between two related quantities.[1] If the denominator of the ratio is expressed as a single unit of one of these quantities, and if it is assumed that this quantity can be changed systematically (i.e., is an independent variable), then the numerator of the ratio expresses the corresponding rate of change in the other (dependent) variable.

The most common type of rate is “per unit of time”, such as speed, heart rate and flux. Ratios that have a non-time denominator include exchange rates, literacy rates and electric field (in volts/meter).

In describing the units of a rate, the word “per” is used to separate the units of the two measurements used to calculate the rate (for example a heart rate is expressed “beats per minute”). A rate defined using two numbers of the same units (such as tax rates) or counts (such as literacy rate) will result in a dimensionless quantity, which can be expressed as a percentage (for example, the global literacy rate in 1998 was 80%) or fraction or as a multiple.

Often rate is a synonym of rhythm or frequency, a count per second (i.e., Hertz); e.g., radio frequencies or heart rate or sample rate.
Rates and ratios often vary with time, location, particular element (or subset) of a set of objects, etc. Thus they are often mathematical functions. For example, velocity v (distance tracity on segment i (v is a function of index i). Here each segment i, of the trip is a subset of the trip route.

Consider the case where the numerator {\displaystyle f} f of a rate is a function {\displaystyle f(a)} f(a) where {\displaystyle a} a happens to be the denominator of the rate {\displaystyle \delta f/\delta a} {\displaystyle \delta f/\delta a}. A rate of change of {\displaystyle f} f with respect to {\displaystyle a} a (where {\displaystyle a} a is incremented by {\displaystyle h} h) can be formally defined in two ways

A rate (or ratio) may often be thought of as an output-input ratio, benefit-cost ratio, all considered in the broad sense. For example, miles per hour in transportation is the output (or benefit) in terms of miles of travel, which one gets from spending an hour (a cost in time) of traveling (at this velocity).

A set of sequential indices i may be used to enumerate elements (or subsets) of a set of ratios under study. For example, in finance, one could define i by assigning consecutive integers to companies, to political subdivisions (such as states), to different investments, etc. The reason for using indices i, is so a set of ratios (i=0,N) can be used in an equation so as to calculate a function of the rates such as an average of a set of ratios. For example, the average velocity found from the set of vi’s mentioned above. Finding averages may involve using weighted averages and possibly using the Harmonic mean.

A ratio r=a/b has both a numerator a and a denominator b. a and/or b may be a real number or integer. The inverse of a ratio r is 1/r = b/a.

where f(x) is the function with respect to x over the interval from a to a+h. An instantaneous rate of change is equivalent to a derivative.

An example to contrast the differences between the unit rates are average and instantaneous definitions: the speed of a car can be calculated:

An average rate can be calculated using the total distance travelled between a and b, divided by the travel time
An instantaneous rate can be determined by viewing a speedometer.
However these two formulas do not directly apply where either the range or the domain of {\displaystyle f()} f() is a set of integers or where there is no given formula (function) for finding the numerator of the ratio from its denominator.

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