Cheat use in Counter Strike 1.6
Counter-Strike has been a major target for the use of qicerat since its creation. In the game, qicat are often referred to as “hacking” of the programs or “hacks” executed by the client.
Wallhacks- allows players to see through walls. These work by displaying objects that are normally obscured or replacing textures translucent dark game. As the engine makes only the immediate area around the player, it does not allow a player to see all level at the same time.
Speedhacks- provide increased foot speed player. These work by sending false data synchronization server.
Improve gjuajtes- (and thus improves accuracy) of weapons a player.
No spread is used to remove random deviation normally experienced when the player shoots. This is similar to the recoil hack.
Auto-target Aimbots other players. Some include auto-shot. These work using game client library to calculate an enemy player 2D and 3D space coordinates automatically moving the mouse to target enemy player. It also consists of aiming a player headshot throws an enemy bullet that hits directly at the enemy’s head.
Silent Aimbots- works the way networks work on id Tech. Viewangles are sent to the server via packages, and completely out-of-sync frames. Typically, multiple packages will be sent every frame. Therefore, a hacker can manipulate the system and have different angles than the server sent to the angles that are displayed on the screen every frame, making it seem as if your appearance is not moving with aimbot.
ESP- shows textual information about the enemy; such as health, name and distance; also information about weapons lying around the map, which would be lost without hack. Most cheats show info ESP through walls.
Hack- Barrel describes viewing an enemy as a visible line, it is also apparent in killcam.
Anti-flash and anti-smoke to remove the effects of the flashbang and smoke grenade. Implementation flowing from the wall hack.
Unlimited HP and ammunition are not hacks, but modifications to the server.
Bunnyhop script- a script that causes the player to jump precisely when they hit the ground, it can be used together with strafing to win a lot of unreasonable speed (bunnyhopping can usually be mistaken as dry speed). This can be done legitimately, as well, but not nearly as effective. Players can navigate a map on a piece of what would normally get through bunnyhopping.
No-clip- allows players to move around the map without taking into account traditional boundaries wall. This means players are like ghosts that can move through obstacles.
By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person. Early personal Computers- generally called microcomputers- were often sold in a kit form and in limited volumes, and were of interest mostly to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, and output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, and printers. Micralite N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008. It was built starting in 1972 and about 90,000 units were sold. This had been preceded by the Datapoint 2200 and 1970, for which the Intel 8008 had been commissioned, though not accepted for use. The CPU design implemented in the Datapoint 2200 became the basis for the x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants. 
In 1973 the IBM Scientific Center of Los Gatos developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Portable) based on the IBM PALM processor with a Philips compact cassette drive, small CRT and full function keyboard. SCAMP emulated an IBM 1130 minicomputer in order to run APL \ 1130th  In 1973 APL was generally available only on mainframe computers, and most desktop sized microcomputers such as the Wang 2200 or HP 9800 offered only BASIC. Because SCAMP was the first to emulate APL \ 1130 performance on a portable, single user computer, PC Magazine in 1983 designated SCAMP a “revolutionary concept” and “the world’s first personal computer”.   This seminal, single user portable computer now resides in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Successful demonstrations of the 1973 SCAMP prototype led to the IBM 5100 portable microcomputer launched in 1975 with the ability to be programmed in both APL and BASIC for engineers, analysts , statisticians and other business problem-solvers. In the late 1960s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weighed about half a ton. 
Another seminal product in 1973 was the Xerox Alto, developed at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), it had a graphical user interface (GUI) which later served as inspiration for Apple Computer’s Macintosh and Microsoft’s Windows operating system. Also in 1973 Hewlett Packard introduced fully BASIC programmable microcomputers that fit entirely on top of a desk, including a keyboard, a small one-line display and printer. The microcomputer Wang 2200 of 1973 had a full-size cathode ray tube (CRT) and cassette tape storage.  These were generally expensive specialized computers sold for business or scientific uses. The introduction of the microprocessor, a single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after 1975
In 1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak sold the Apple I computer circuit board, which was fully prepared and contained about 30 chips. The Apple I computer differed from the other kit-style hobby computers of the era. At the request of Paul Terrell, owner of the Byte Shop, Steve Jobs was given his first purchase order, for 50 Apple I computers, only if the computers were assembled and tested and not a kit computer. Terrell wanted to have computers to sell to a wide range of users, not just experienced electronics hobbyists who had the soldering skills to assemble a computer kit. The Apple I, as delivered, was still technically a kit computer, as it did not have a power supply, case, or keyboard as it was delivered to the Byte Shop.
The first successfully mass marketed personal computer was the Commodore PET introduced in January 1977. However, it was back-ordered and not available until later in the year.  Five months later (June), the Apple II (usually referred to as the “Apple”) was introduced,  and the TRS-80 from Tandy Corporation / Radio Shack Tandy in summer 1977, delivered in September and a small number. Mass-market ready-assembled computers allowed a wider range of people to use computers, focusing more on software applications and less on development of the processor hardware.
During the early 1980s, home computers were further developed for household use, with tools for personal productivity, programming and games. They typically could be used with a television already in the home and on the computer display, with low-detail blocky graphics and a limited color range, and text about 40 characters wide by 25 tall characters. Sinclair Research,  a UK company, produced the ZX Series – the ZX80 (1980), ZX81 (1981), and the ZX Spectrum; The latter was introduced in 1982, and totaled 8 million unit sold. Following came the Commodore 64, totaled 17 million units sold.  
In the same year, the NEC PC-98 was introduced, which was a very popular personal computer that sold and more than 18 million units.  Another famous personal computer, the revolutionary Amiga 1000, was unveiled by Commodore on July 23, 1985. The Amiga 1000 featured a multitasking, windowing operating system, color graphics with a 4096-color palette, stereo sound, Motorola 68000 CPU, 256 MB RAM , and 880 MB 3.5-inch disk drive, for US $ 1.295. 
Somewhat larger and more expensive systems (for example, running CP / M), or sometimes a home computer with additional interfaces and devices, although still low-cost compared with minicomputers and mainframes, were aimed at office and small business use, typically using ” high resolution “monitors capable of at least 80 column text display, and often no graphical or color drawing capability. Workstations were characterized by high-performance processors and graphics displays, with large-capacity local disk storage, networking capability, and running under a multitasking operating system. Eventually, due to the influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market, personal computers and home computers lost any technical distinction. Business computers acquired color graphics capability and sound, and home computers and game systems users used the same processors and operating systems as office workers. Mass-market computers had graphics capabilities and memory comparable to dedicated workstations of a few years before. Even local area networking, originally a way to allow business computers to share expensive mass storage and peripherals, became a standard feature of personal computers used at home.
In 1982, “The Computer” was named Machine of the Year by Time Magazine. In the 2010s, several companies such as Hewlett-Packard and Sony sold off their PC and laptop divisions. As a result, the personal computer was declared dead several times during this period.
In 2001, 125 million personal computers were shipped in comparison to 48,000 in 1977.  More than 500 million personal computers were in use in 2002 and one billion personal computers had been sold worldwide from the mid-1970s up to this time. Of the latter figure, 75% were professional or work related, while the rest were sold for personal or home use. About 81.5% of personal computers shipped had been desktop computers, 16.4% and 2.1% laptops servers. The United States had received 38.8% (394 million) of the computers shipped, Europe 25% and 11.7% had gone to the Asia-Pacific region, the fastest-growing market as of 2002. The second billion was expected to be sold by 2008 .  Almost half of all households in Western Europe had a personal computer and a computer could be found in 40% of homes in the United Kingdom, compared with only 13% in 1985. 
The global personal computer shipments were 350.9 million units in 2010,  308.3 million units in 2009  and 302.2 million units in 2008.   The shipments were 264 million units in the year 2007, according to iSuppli, , up 11.2% from 239 million in 2006.  In 2004, the global shipments were 183 million units, an 11.6% increase over 2003.  In 2003, 152.6 million computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $ 175 billion.  In 2002, 136.7 million PCs were shipped, at an estimated value of $ 175 billion.  In 2000, 140.2 million personal computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $ 226 billion.  Worldwide shipments of personal computers surpassed the 100-million mark in 1999, growing to 113.5 million units from 93.3 million units in 1998.  In 1999, Asia had 14.1 million units shipped. 
As of June 2008, the number of personal computers in use worldwide hit one billion,  while another billion is expected to be reached by 2014. Mature markets like the United States, Western Europe and Japan accounted for 58% of the worldwide installed PCs. The emerging markets were expected to double their installed PCs by 2012 and to take 70% of the second billion PCs. About 180 million computers (16% of the existing installed base) were expected to be replaced and 35 million to be dumped into landfill in 2008. The whole installed base grew 12% annually.  
Based on International Data Corporation (IDC) data for Q2 2011, for the first time China surpassed the US in PC shipments by 18.5 million and 17.7 million respectively. This trend reflects the rising of emerging markets as well as the relative stagnation of mature regions. 
In the developed world, there has been a vendor tradition to keep adding functions to maintain high prices of personal computers. However, since the introduction of the One Laptop per Child foundation and its low-cost XO-1 laptop, the computing industry started to pursue the price too. Although introduced only one year earlier, there were 14 million netbooks sold in 2008.  Besides the regular computer manufacturers, companies making especially rugged versions of computers have sprung up, offering alternatives for people operating their machines in extreme weather or environments.
In 2011, Deloitte consulting firm predicted that, smartphones and tablet computers as computing devices would surpass the PCs sales  (as has happened since 2012). As of 2013, worldwide sales of PCs had begun to fall as many consumers moved to tablets and smartphones for gifts and personal use. Sales of 90.3 million units in the 4th quarter of 2012 represented a 4.9% decline from sales in the 4th quarter of 2011.  Global PC sales fell sharply in the first quarter of 2013, according to IDC data. The 14% year-over-year decline was the largest on record since the firm began tracking in 1994, and double what analysts had been expecting.   The decline of Q2 2013 PC shipments marked the fifth straight quarter of falling sales.  “This is horrific news for PCs,” remarked an analyst. “It’s all about mobile computing now. We have definitely reached the tipping point.”  Data from Gartner Inc. showed a similar decline for the same time period.  China’s Lenovo Group bucked the general trend as strong sales to first time buyers in the developing world allowed the company’s sales to stay flat overall.  Windows 8, which was designed to look similar to a tablet / smartphone software, was cited as a contributing factor in the decline of new PC sales. “Unfortunately, it seems clear that the Windows 8 launch not only did not provide a positive boost to the PC market, but appears to have slowed the market,” said IDC vice president Bob O’Donnell. 
In August 2013, Credit Suisse published research findings that attributed around 75% of the operating profit share of the PC industry to Microsoft (operating system) and Intel (semiconductors).  According to IDC, PC shipments in 2013 dropped by 9.8% as the greatest-ever drop in line with trends consumers to use mobile devices. 
Average selling price
Selling prices of personal computers steadily declined due to lower costs of production and manufacture, while the capabilities of computers increased. In 1975, an Altair kit sold for only around US $ 400, but required customers to solder components into circuit boards; peripherals required to interact with the system and alphanumeric form instead of blinking lights would add another $ 2,000, and the resultant system was only of use to hobbyists. 
At their introduction in 1981, the US $ 1.795 price of the Osborne 1 and its competitor Kaypro was considered an attractive price point; these systems had text-only displays and only floppy disks for storage. By 1982, Michael Dell observed that a personal computer system selling at retail for about $ 3,000 US was made of components that cost the dealer about $ 600; typical gross margin on a computer unit was around $ 1,000.  The total value of personal computer purchases in the US in 1983 was about $ 4 billion, comparable to total sales of pet food. By late 1998, the average selling price of personal computer systems in the United States had dropped below $ 1,000. 
For Microsoft Windows systems, the average selling price (ASP) showed a decline in 2008/2009, possibly due to low-cost netbooks, drawing $ 569 for desktop computers and $ 689 for laptops at US retail in August 2008. In 2009, ASP had further fallen to $ 533 for desktops and to $ 602 for notebooks by January and to $ 540 and $ 560 in February.  According to research firm NPD, the average selling price of all Windows portable PCs has fallen from $ 659 in October 2008 to $ 519 in October 2009
Academic cheating is a significantly common occurrence in high schools and colleges in the United States. Statistically, 70% of public high school students admit to serious test cheating. 60% say they have plagiarized papers. Only 50% of private school students, however, admit to this. The report was made in June 2005 by Rutgers University professor Donald McCabe for The Center for Academic Integrity. The findings were corroborated in part by a Gallup survey. In McCabe’s 2001 of 4500 high school students, “74% said they cheated on a test, 72% cheated on a written work, and 97% reported to at least had copied someone’s homework or peeked at someone’s test. 1/3 reported to have repeatedly cheated.” The new revolution in high-tech digital info contributes enormously to the new wave in cheating: online term-paper mills sell formatted reports on practically any topic; services exist to prepare any kind of homework or take online tests for students, despite the fact that this phenomenon, and these websites, are well known to educators, and camera phones are used to send pictures of tests; MP3 players can hold digitalized notes; graphing calculators store formulas to solve math problems
heating can occur in various forms: physical, emotional, or online. Online infidelity is one way to cheat on a significant other. The definition of the constitution of cheating varies among cultures. When people are in a committed relationship, the definition of cheating is based on both parties’ opinions, and both parties may redefine their understanding to match the party at an either lower or higher extreme of this definition. For example, people engaged in an Open marriage might have an idea of cheating that is completely different from what a “normal” couple might think.
Cheating in sports is the intentional breaking of rules in order to obtain an advantage over the other teams or players. Sports are governed by both customs and explicit rules regarding acts which are permitted and forbidden at the event and away from it. Forbidden acts frequently include performance-enhancing drug taking (known as “doping”), using equipment that does not conform to the rules or altering the condition of equipment during play, and deliberate harassment or injury to competitors.
High profile examples of alleged doping cheating include Lance Armstrong’s use of steroids in professional cycling – particularly controversial as it is widely suspected that a high percentage of professional cyclists are using prohibited substances – Ben Johnson’s disqualification following the 100 metres final at the 1988 Summer Olympics, and admissions of steroid use by former professional baseball players after they have retired, such as José Canseco and Ken Caminiti. A famous sporting scandal involving cheating via harassment and injury occurred in 1994 in figure skating when Tonya Harding’s ex-husband, Jeff Gillooly, and her bodyguard Shawn Eckhardt, hired Shane Stant to break Nancy Kerrigan’s leg to remove her from the year’s competitions and prevent her from competing with Harding. One of the most famous instances of cheating involving a prohibited player action occurred during the 1986 FIFA World Cup quarter-final, when Diego Maradona used his hand to punch the ball into the goal of England goalkeeper Peter Shilton. Using the hand or arm by anyone other than a goalkeeper is illegal according to the rules of association football.
Illegally altering the condition of playing equipment is frequently seen in bat sports such as baseball and cricket, which are heavily dependent on equipment condition. For example, in baseball, a pitcher using a doctored baseball (e.g. putting graphite or Vaseline on the baseball), or a batter using a corked bat are some examples of this. Tennis and golf are also no strangers to equipment cheating, with players being accused of using rackets of illegal string tension, or golf clubs of illegal weight, size, or make. Equipment cheating can also occur via the use of external aids in situations where equipment is prohibited – such as in American football via the use of stickum on the hands of receivers, making the ball easier to catch. An example of this is Hall of Famer Jerry Rice, who admitted to regularly & illegally using “stickum” throughout his career, calling into question the integrity of his receiving records.
Athletic cheating is a widespread problem. For example, in professional bodybuilding, cheating is now estimated to be so universal that it is now considered impossible to engage in professional competition without cheating and the use of supposedly banned substances; bodybuilders who refuse to take banned substances now compete in natural bodybuilding leagues.
Cheating may also be seen in coaching. One of the most common forms of this is the use of bribery and kickbacks in the player recruitment process. Such practices are widespread all across athletics, and are particularly visible in college sports recruitment. Another common form of cheating in coaching is profiteering in association with gamblers and match fixing (see also the section below on cheating in the gambling industry). The most famous coach of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Runnin’ Rebels basketball team, Jerry Tarkanian, was accused of both recruitment fraud and gambling fraud over the course of his career and was the subject of intense NCAA scrutiny. Another form of this involves a team coach or other manager undertaking corporate espionage or another form of prohibited spying in order to obtain details about other teams’ strategies and tactics. The 2007 National Football League videotaping controversy, in which the New England Patriots were found to have video taped an opposing team from an unapproved location while trying to obtain defensive signals. As was the Pittsburgh Steelers use of, at the time legal, performance enhancers. However, there was cheating proven by the Denver Broncos during their back to back titles in the late 90’s to circumvent the league’s salary cap and obtain and retain players that they would otherwise not have been able to. Circumvention of rules governing conduct and procedures of a sport can also be considered cheating. During the 2007 Formula One Season, driver Fernando Alonso was labelled a “cheat” for exchanging confidential information between the teams of Scuderia Ferrari and Mclaren, a form of collusion. Another example is widely believed to have occurred in 2002 in Olympic figure skating, when the Russian team was awarded a gold medal over the Canadian team despite a technical error by the Russians; the Canadian team was eventually awarded a “second gold medal” but the Russians’ gold medal was not disqualified.
Cheating is also used to refer to movements in strength training that transfer weight from an isolated or fatigued muscle group to a different or fresh muscle group. This allows the cheater to move an initial greater weight (if the cheating continues through an entire training set) or to continue exercising past the point of muscular exhaustion (if the cheating begins part way through the set). As strength training is not a sport, cheating has no rule-based consequences, but can result in injury or a failure to meet training goals. This is because each exercise is designed to target specific muscle groups and if the proper form is not used the weight can be transferred away from the targeted group.
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